ALBORADA - SAYRI ÑAN

12.31.2011

LIKE PUMAS ENTWINED ON THE SANDALS OF HUASCAR




Now, returning five hundred years into the Tahuantinsuyo, the Inca Empire, we go to the palace to find the Inca... The last Inca... Huascar.



The Royal Palace, called Cuusmanco, has two magnificent gates, one at the entrance of the palace and one more inside, both well decorated with carved designs.
At the first door, at the entrance, there are two thousand soldiers guard with his captain. These soldiers are privileged and exempt from personal services; the captains that command them are important people, of great authority (1).
 
After the first door is a square. Those who follow the Inca, coming from outside, stop there, when he goes in with the four "orejones" of his council, passing by the second door, in which is also other guard, composed by people from  the city of Cuzco (2). Beyond this door is another large courtyard, to the officials of the palace and those that have ordinary craft in it, which are there waiting for what is told, by virtue of his craft.

Along with this second door, where is the armory (3), with all sorts of weapons, are one hundred of the best captains of war, trained for war, who are entertained there, ready for any occasion.

Then the rooms and bedrooms, where the Inca lives days and nights full of delight and joy, because there is many trees, gardens with all kinds of birds singing, pumas, jaguars and other savage cats and all savage beasts and animals of all genres found in the Tahuantinsuyo.
 
The rooms, large and spacious, hand-worked with wonderful artifice, because the hangings or tapestries are not used, the walls are carved with rich work, adorned with much gold and much stamping of the figures and the deeds of the ancestors. Skylights and windows adorned with gold and silver and precious stones...
 
There is a treasure chamber in the palace, the capac marca huasi (4), where they keep the jewels and precious stones of the Lord. There are all the rich dresses of the Inca, of very fine cumbi (5), and all things pertaining to the adornment of his person - not just his jewels of inestimable value, as the pieces of gold and silver of crockery that are placed on the sidebords of the palace. With fifty chamberlains in charge, and the greatest of these is a tucuiricuc or cuipucamayoc, which is more as an overseer and accountant.


He is in charge of the keys to certain doors (6), but he can't open any door without being in front of his peers, who also have their keys...
There are twenty-five guards-clothes, from twelve to fifteen years, sons of chiefs and principals, very well treated and richly dressed, who take care of the clothes of the Inca, by preparing and separating according to color ordered. Also they take the dishes to the table when he eats. 


The Inca crossed the threshold of the room with a stately air and proud. Like the other Incas, he is medium height, slightly tan skin, hair a little shorter than other people in the kingdom who use longer hair. Without having a beard (7), he is serious, severe, but also quiet and unobtrusive. As in general all the Incas, he speaks well. (8)
 
He is dressed as ordinarily does, with a blue shirt carved of cumbi, beautifully sculpted with a work of Tocapo (9), with subtle shades of green and purple. The blanket, the yacolla, of the same cumbi, but without any work, rests in the arms of a guard-rope, who is ready to dress it, if the Lord wants.
 
On his head he brings the llaitu (10), with the colors of the rainbow, the same colors of the Tahuantinsuyo, encrusted with precious stones. Hanging from the llaitu, the very fine crimson of cumbi of the imperial tassel, the mascapaicha - the royal insignia and crown, with its threads of gold and feathers of the sacred qoriqenqe.




He is shod with some sandals that cover the soles of the feet, and intertwine in the middle of the feet with its handles over the heels and where the loops are locked, there are some heads of pumas, made ​​of gold and emerald stones, richly worked.
At this time, the butler, the ancosanaymaci, one of the main orejones, enters carrying a glass made of precious wood, perhaps full of chicha, to serve the supreme Inca of Tahuantinsuyo.
The last Inca... Huascar... remains silent, watching the sunlight coming from the gardens...



                         (Fray Martín de Murúa: Historia general del Perú)





1) Every time that the Inca went to the Andean Mountains, they were with him, and in addition to the regular rations, they were payed with advantage, and they were usually accompanied by the sons of chiefs and leaders, that were dressed very lucidly. (Murua)
 Cuando el Ynga iba a la Sierra, iban junto a su persona, y se les daban las raciones ordinarias y pagas aventajadas, y andaban de ordinario acompañados de los hijos de los curacas y principales, muy lucidamente aderezados. (Murtua)

(2) "orejones", relatives and descendants of the Inca, whom he trusted, and were those that were charged of raising and teaching children of the governors and principals of the whole kingdom, who would serve the Inca, and assist him in the palace when older.

(3) namely, arrows, bows, spears, macanas, champis, swords, helmets, slings, heavy shields, all set in good order and harmony.


(4) literally - rich treasure chamber - the treasurer, the chief accountant, had great salary and great benefit, because the Inca gave him many of his own dresses, cattle and lands, and of his own gifts, he took two parties and one was for his teammates.

(5) Cumbi - A superior kind of fabric made ​​in Peru and Bolivia from alpaca wool.
 
(6) wooden doors.
 
((7) the Incas did not have any kind of beard, because they pulled it out with tweezers, called "tirana". (Murua)
 
(8) I described Huascar according to the characteristics of the Incas, described by Fray Murua in his book.
 

(9) The ñustas (Virgins of the Sun Temple), who spun subtly to weave the Inca dresses and sculpted on them wonderful works of Tocapo, that they say it means diversity of work, with a thousand shades of subtle way, great delicacy, and sometimes purple, sometimes green, sometimes blue, fine crimson other.
Tocapu: small figures of a large pattern repeat of certain patterns, they adorned the most luxurious garments with them. Clothing typical of Peru and blankets, often contain these abstract geometric symbols, that are discreetly within a rectangular or square. In apparel, each tocapu could be placed in a linear pattern across the waist or on a grid covering the entire surface. They were prerogative of the imperial clan members and individuals of the Inca elite, believed that it had privileges of the people that used these garments and they controlled a variety of ethnicities in the Empire (Rebecca Stone-Miller. Art of the Andes Chavin de Inca, New York. Thames and Hudson, 1995, p. 210).


 (10) The llauto was a kind of turban with the colors of Tahuantinsuyo, woven of vicuna hair, (10) The llauto was a kind of turban with the colors of Tahuantinsuyo, woven of vicuna hair, which was five to six times around the head and that hold on in front a fringe of wool, called mascaipacha, that, together with feathers of the qoriqenqe (sacred bird whose symbol was on the front) and the topayauri (sort of scepter), were the private outfits of Sapa Inca.
 
BIBLIOGRAPHY:



Fray Martín de Murúa: Historia general del Perú. Origen y descendencia de los Incas (1611).


and for the tocapo:


Rebecca Stone-Miller. Arte de los Andes de Chavín de Inca, Nueva York. Thames and Hudson, 1995, p. 210).
 
* The sublines, as always, everything is mine.
 
 
 

12.27.2011

HUASCAR & CHUQUILLANTO - DREAM WEDDING IN CUZCO (INCA EMPIRE)

                         (Chuqui Huipa (Chuquillanto) according to Gaman Poma)



Once again, we go back in time to witness, in our dreams, and in the narrative of the chroniclers, the wedding of Huascar, the last Inca and his sister Chuqui Huipa (1)...


At that time the Orejones (elite force of Inca warriors) had brought the body of Huayna Capac to Cuzco, entering with great triumph, and his obsequies were performed like those of his ancestors. Huascar Inca, with great feeling and signals of infinite sadness, had attended, in person, the last "crying" in Yucay, before returning to Cuzco.


Then, he needed to think of the succession.


With the permission and the favorable omens of the Priest of the Sun and the consent of the other major and brothers, relatives and Orejones, Huascar decided to marry Chuqui Huipa, sister of father and mother, according to the laws Incas. According to the chronicler Fray Martin de Murua, they called Rahua Ocllo, wife of Huayna Capac, mother of Huascar Inca and Chuqui Huipa and they told her, all together, how they had determined that his master Huascar should take his sister Chuqui Huipa as wife.


Rahua Ocllo, hearing these reasons and given the will of his son, counselors and captains, no one knows the reason, she refused, denying what they asked, saying she did not want to give him his sister as wife.


"Huascar Inca tomó grandísimo enojo y, con cólera y desprecio, levantándose de donde estaba sentado, dijo a su madre muy feas y descomedidas palabras, tratándola con escarnio y menosprecio, las cuales oídas por ella, afrentada, se levantó y se fue a su casa, dejando a su hijo y consejeros con gran ira." (Múrua) (Huascar took great anger and, with rage and contempt, stood up from where he sat, he told his mother very ugly and unmannerly words, treating her with scorn and contempt, words which, heard by her, feeling insulted, got up and went to his home, leaving his son and counselors with great fury.)(Múrua)

Viewing the determination of Rahua Ocllo, the counselors of Huascar had determined that, although his mother did not want, he should ask to his father the Sun to give him his sister Chuqui Huipa as wife with sacrifices and gifts and other things that he should do and offer to the Sun and give many rich gifts to the body of Tupac Inca Yupanqui, his grandfather and father of Rahua Ocllo, his mother.


Given this, Huascar Inca, following the order of his private council, went first to the place where was the body (mummy) of Tupac Inca Yupanqui with great gifts. Adcayquy Atarimachi, Achache and Manco, that took care of the body of Tupac Inca Yupanqui, accepted on its behalf, and they awarded him his sister as wife.


From there Huascar went to the temple of the Sun with great sacrifices and offerings and he asked His father Sun his sister Chuqui Huipa as legitimate wife. And all the priests of the Sun, all together, in His name, they gave her as wife, receiving the gifts. He, wanting a marriage with the blessings of his mother,


Rahua Ocllo, to placating her angry, and make her happy, brought her rich gifts of gold, silver, clothes, servants, and solemnly, again with all priests and brothers, Huascar and counselors, they sworn her by his legitimate wife.


There were new feasts with dances in Cuzco by the oath it was repeated, and it was ordered that, for the entire month, would have fixtures on all towers and houses of the town and all genres of music from the nations, and, as commanded, was fulfilled.


After the body (mummy) of Tupac Inca Yupanqui, the Sun, and Rahua Ocllo, awarded Chuqui Huipa as wife to Huascar Inca, it was agreed that the marriage would take place. For more majesty, grandeur and more ostentation,it was agreed that the Sun and the mummy of Tupac Inca Yupanqui would go to the marriage, to representing the person of Huayna Capac, the father of the bride, because they had given her by wife - Huascar Inca would come out with the image of the thunder, the ones that made the Party to the Sun and to Tupac Inca Yupanqui.

To celebrate more, they ordered that the houses of Tupac Inca Yupanqui and Huayna Capac would be covered with gold and silver, and thus were covered four towers and all the walls were upholstered with fine clothes. Those that were representing Tupac Inca Yupanqui and Huayna Capac and the priests of the Sun, ordered that the house of Inca Huascar and his bride would be covered with gold and fine clothes, and in all the houses of the dead Incas, the roofs, with feathers and the walls, sheeted with fine clothes. The towers of the square were decorated in the same way and in them, day and night, for the duration of the festivities and merriment, had a lot of music, songs and dances.


Cuzco was shining under the sun with its gold and silver and, at night, illuminated by the fixtures on the towers. The great walls in myriads of stars to shine the happiness of the Inca and his wife...


On the wedding day, Huascar came home accompanied by the image of the Sun, the bodies of Tupac Inca Yupanqui and Huayna Capac, and by all the priests, brothers, relatives, counselors, orejones and captains of his army and a crowd of people. They went to the house of Rahua Ocllo, that had been richly upholstered, and there they gave him Chuqui Huipa, his sister, with all possible solemnity and all the ceremonies that between them used in such marriages.


"Estuvieron allí desde la mañana hasta hora devísperas y después la sacaron para llevarla a casa de su marido Huascar, con mucha música y cantares. Por donde ella iba con su marido, estaba todo el camino sembrado de oro y plata en polvo e infinita chaquira (2) y plumería, cosa nunca hasta entonces vista en fiestas ni casamientos de ningún monarca del mundo desde el primer hombre, hasta este punto a lo menos no se escribe tal en ningún autor ni lo que luego diremos. Fueron desde Casana hasta Marucancha, que eran las casas y moradas de Huascar Ynga, y todo lo que de aquel día quedó hasta la noche se gastó en bailes, cantares, danzas y regocijos. El día siguiente, para más autoridad y grandeza, vinieron todas las naciones que estaban en el Cuzco a hacer fiestas a su señora y duraron más de un mes." (Múrua)(They were there from morning until vespers and then they went to take her to the home of her husband Huascar, with music and singing. For where she went with her husband, all the way was planted with gold and silver in powder and endless "chaquira" (2) and feathers, something never before seen in parties or weddings of any monarch in the world since the first man, till now it is not written in any author or what would later we're going to say. They went since Casana untill Marucancha, which were the houses and dwellings of Huascar Inca, and everything that day until the night was spent in dances, songs, dances and rejoicing. The next day, for more power and grandeur, came all the nations that were in the Cuzco to throw parties at his wife and lasted more than a month. ) (Múrua)


Huascar Inca wanted to celebrate his marriage in a way that would be remembered forever. Then he ordered, in gold and silver, all kinds of corn, and all varieties of herbs that they ate. They also made all sorts (3) of birds, pigeons, herons, parrots, hawks, thrushes, eagles, falcons, condors, and many sorts of fish from the sea and lagoon. Firewood, whole and cracked, and all types of land animals that existed in Tahuantinsuyo, were made of gold and silver and feathers. Huascar's servants gave them to eat on the tables as if it were something to this purpose, as done at the parties.


They bring endless number of live animals, including bears, cougars, cats savage, monkeys, deer, vicunas, llamas, in robes of different colors, made ​​on purpose, it seemed that they had been born and had been domesticated for this purpose and all the pitchers, bowls and other glasses and dishes were of gold and silver.


"Ni como digo arriba, ningún señor ni príncipe del mundo, porque aunque en invenciones, majestad y aparato haya habido muchas que le han excedido, ninguna de tanta abundancia de oro ni infinidad de plata que como si fueran manjares comestibles se ofrecieron a los convidados." (Múrua)(Not as I said above, no lord or prince of the world, because even in invention, majesty and apparatus has been many that have exceeded any of such abundance of gold or infinity of silver as if they were edible delicacies offered to the guests . )(Múrua)


Sometime later a delegation of his brother Atahualpa was received by the Inca. As came amid the joys of triumph, he was very pleased with it, and received the messengers of his brother with honor and made them favors. These messengers brought many rich gifts and rich gifts to Rahua Ocllo, mother of Huascar Inca, and to his wife Chuqui Huipa.


Rahua Ocllo received them very well, what later was known by Huascar Inca, that they had brought to his mother and wife gifts, took, from that, a bad suspicion, with jealousy, maybe ...
Because Atahualpa, and he alone, was not to Cuzco for the funeral of his father, Huayna Capac, or at least for the marriage of his brother Huascar ...

"Según Gaman Poma, en Nueva Corónica y Buen Gobierno (1615), "la docena coia [reina], Chuqui Llanto, coya: Dizen que fue muy muchas veces hermosa y blanquilla, que no tenía ninguna tacha en el cuerpo. Y en el parecer y muy alegre y cantora, amiga de criar pajaritos. Y no tenía cosa suya,... ...tenía su lliclla [manta] de azul claro y lo del medio verde escuro y suacxo [falda] a de verde y lo del abajo de tocapu [paño de labor tejido]. De puro buena y alegra le contentaba a su marido,..."(According to Gaman Poma, in Nueva Corónica y Buen Gobierno (1615), "the twelfth "coya" [queen], Chuqui Llanto, coya: They say she was very very beautiful and so white, she had no blemish on the body. And she looked like very happy and singing, she was a friend of raising birds. and she had no own things, ... ... she had her lliclla [blanket] light blue and the middle dark green and the "suacxo" [skirt] green and down, of tocapu [cloth woven work]. Good and cheerful she was satisfied with her husband,...)


"Fue Chuqui Huipa mujer de buena disposición y hermosa, aunque algo morena, que todo este linaje lo tuvo siempre. Sus arreos fueron pomposos y soberbios cuando salía fuera de su casa, iban en su acompañamiento infinito número de indios principales y criados suyos, y rodeada de muchas ñustas bizarramente vestidas. Las paredes de su palacio tenía pintadas con diferentes modos de pinturas, porque fue extrañamente aficionada a ello, y los paramentos y colgaduras eran de finísimo cumbi de diferentes figuras, cuales en aquellos tiempos se hacían sutilísimas." (Fray Martín de Murua, Historia General del Peru, Libro I)(Chuqui Huipa was woman of willingness and beautiful, if somewhat brunette, that the whole lineage always had it. Her gear was pompous and superb when she went outside her house, went in her support, a infinite number of main indians, and her servants, and surrounded by many ñustas (princesses) bizarrely dressed. The walls of her palace were painted with different modes of painting, because she was strangely fond of it, and the vestments and hangings were of fine cumbi, of different shapes, which in those times were very subtle. )(Fray Martin de Murua, História Geral do Peru, Livro I)


For everything that happened before the marriage and the greatness of his achievement, I can only believe that the two loved each other very much. It was definitely the happiest day of their lives ...


At his heart, or with his hands, Huascar Inca, solemnly, put on the sandal on the right foot of the chosen of his life ... (as an ancient Inca tradition)


There was an Inca proverb that said "marry your equal" (Varela, 1945).




                                                                       **




(*) in Cuzco Huascar Inca erected the houses of Amaru−Cancha, where is now the monastery of the “Name of Jesus,” and others on the Colcampata, where lived Don Carlos, son of Paulo (Inca).


1) (Chuquillanto, Mama Huarcay, Mama Guarqui, Cori Illpay) - Chuqui is Aymara, meaning "gold" Cori is Quechua, means the same metal.


(2) chaquira (beads) 1.f. amer. Bracelet or necklace made ​​with beads, beads, shells, etc.., Used as ornaments.


Bibliografia
Fray Martín de Murua, Historia General del Peru, Libro I.


Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, El Primer Nueva Corónica y Buen Gobierno.
 
 
*This post is an English version of a post in Spanish,on this Blog.