ALBORADA - SAYRI ÑAN

6.10.2011

HUASCAR - RISE AND FALL OF THE LAST INCA



When Huayna Qapac went to Huancavilca, news came to him that a great pestilence was raging at Cuzco of which the governors Apu Hilaquito his uncle, and Auqui Tupac Inca his brother had died, also his sister Mama Cuca, and many other relations. To establish order among the conquered nations, the Inca went to Quito, intending to proceed from thence to Cuzco.
On reaching Quito the Inca was taken ill with a fever, though others say it was small−pox or measles. He felt the disease to be mortal and the orejones asked him to name his successor. He reply that Ninan Cuyoche, his son, was to succeed, if the augury of the calpa gave signs that such succession would be auspicious, if not his son Huascar was to succeed...


Cusi Tupac Yupanqui, named by the Inca to be chief steward of the Sun, came to proceed with the ceremony of the callpa. It was found that the succession of Ninan Cuyoche would not be auspicious. Then they opened another lamb and took out the lungs, examining certain veins. The signs respecting Huascar were also inauspicious.


                                         (kantuta - national flower of Peru (Cuzco)


Returning to the Inca, that he might name some one else, they found that he was dead..
Cusi Tupac Yupanqui ordered to the orejones to take care of the Inca's body and went to Tumipampa to give the fringe to Ninan Cuyoche. But when he arrived at Tumipampa he found that Ninan Cuyoche was also dead of the same pestilence.


(Note: Ninan Cuyoche is said by Cobos to have been legitimate, a son of the first wife Cusi Rimay Huaco, who is said by Sarmiento and others not to have borne a male heir.)




Then Cusi Tupac Yupanqui said to Araua Ocllo to go to Cuzco to tell her son Huascar that his father named him to be Inca when his days were ended. Two orejones accompanied her, with orders to say to the Incas of Cuzco that they were to give the fringe to Huascar. He added that he would ultimate necessary arrangements and would follow them with the body of Huayna Qapac, to enter Cuzco with it in triumph.


Huayna Qapac died at Quito and seems to have left more than 50 sons. He succeeded at the age of 22, and reigned about 32 years. He left a lineage or ayllu called Tumipampa Ayllu and, and left a lineage in Cuzco too, the panaqa of Hanan-Cuzco. Since Inca Roqa, the sixth Inca, they are all Hanan−Cuzcos.




Each panaca required a symbolic founder, whose kinship position relative to the ruling Sapa Inca expressed the status of the panaca.The importance of former emperors' mummies was not genealogical succession, but their panaca's structural position in the social hierarchy of Cuzco. This structural position would be reconstituted with the ascension of each new Sapa Inca, the representant of the Sun on Earth.


According to Sarmiento de Gamboa, in his History of the Incas, "Huayna Ccapac died in the year 1524 of the nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ, the invincible Emperor Charles V of glorious memory being King of Spain, father of your Majesty, and the Pope was Paul III.The body of Huayna Ccapac was found by the Licentiate Polo in a house where it was kept concealed, in the city of Cuzco. It was guarded by two of his servants named Hualpa Titu and Sumac Yupanqui. His idol or guauqui was called Huaraqui Inca. It was a great image of gold, which has not been found up to the presenttime."




Titu Cusi Hualpa was raised as Inti Illapa, called Huascar, to be Inca. According Sarmiento, he was called Huascar because he was born in a town called Huascar Quihuar, four and a half leagues from Cuzco. At Tumipampa the body of Huayna Qapac was embalmed, the spoils collected with the captives taken in his wars for a triumphal entry into the capital.




Entering with great triumph, the orejones brought the body of Huayna Qapac to Cuzco, then his obsequies were performed like those of his ancestors. After this, Huascar presented gold and other presents, as well as wives who had been kept closely confined in the house of the acllas during the time of his father.


Huascar built edifices in the place where he was born, and in Cuzco he erected the houses of Amaru Cancha, where is now the monastery of the “Name of Jesus,”and other buildings too.


Huascar was not educated to be a warrior, although he had great courage. Atahualpa, his half brother, was more prepared with the help of the mighty army of the north, because he was trained to be a warrior, as well as his father, sometimes, teached personally by him. However, the governement of Huascar was not ended in peace, but in war.


To remember Huascar...


The people of Andamarca (Ayacucho/Apurimac) retain many traditions arising from the communal farm labor system. This takes place in ancient terraces that stretch along both banks of the river Negromayo (Black River).


Between the parties related to the agricultural calendar and work on the platforms, the celebration of Yaku Raymi has a special significance. It is a celebration of pre-Inca origin that began in the work of the community to clean ditches and canals and the resumption of irrigation. It's done in Andamarca in the third week of August.


                                                        (tarwi field)


The community included, in the activities that are part of the celebration of Yaku Raymi, the representation of Death of Huascar, in Andamarca, Ayacucho. It's a play that is staged in Quechua, in scenarios considered historical, involving the entire community.




Huascar's death in Andamarca: the tradition challenges the official story.






The old Andamarca (Ayacucho), birthplace of the dancers of scissors, is now the district Carmen Salcedo-Andamarca in the province of Lucanas. It shares the valley of Sondondo with Chipao districts, Cabana, Aucará and Huaycahuacho. The old town of San Cristobal de Sondondo, where the chronicler Guaman Poma was born, is now an annex of Cabana.




What counts the old tradition of Andamarca includes consider that the ancient fortress of Caniche, part of the pre-Inca Antamarca, was for the Incas a detention and punishment place. And that, back from Cusco, after carrying out massacres and sacrilege, the army of Atahualpa, which had captured the Inca Huascar, found there the safest place to take the prisoner, free from the snares of his loyalists. The ancient people of Andamarca, the rucanas, were neutral in the conflict and had, in addition to a fortified center, space and resources to provide shelter to a large contingent of soldiers.




The same tradition relates that the rucanas opposed to the humiliation and abuse suffered by the Inca captive and helped him to cope as best as possible the tragic final of the war situation. After being executed Inca Huascar, his beheaded body was thrown into the river now called Negromayo (Black River), which runs at the foot of the fortress. They show visitors where tradition says that this happened.


They also have found, not without some surprise, that many characters from the the official academic world disagrees with their tradition about the death of Huascar.


BIBLIOGRAFY:



Pedro SARMIENTO DE GAMBOA. Historia de los Incas (Crónica Indica - 1572 (1965)).